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Kawa poplar timber - properties and market opportunities


Report Date: August 2023

Author: Dean Satchell, Northland Regional Council

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Acknowledgements: Many thanks to the MPI Hill Country Erosion Programme for supporting Northland Regional Council to achieve improved soil conservation outcomes and build our technical capacity.


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American Wood Protection Association. (2008). Standard Method for the Analysis of Wood and Wood Treating Solutions by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry. (AWPA A21-08).

AWPC (2015) Protocols for assessment of wood preservatives. Australasian Wood Preservation Committee.

Bak, M. Németh, R. (2012) Modification of wood by oil heat treatment

Bal, B. Bektas, I. (2012) The effects of some factors on the impact bending strength of laminated veneer lumber. Bioresources.

Cia, J. Yang, X. Liping, C. Shi, S. (2013) Impact of the Combination of Densification and Thermal Modification on Dimensional Stability and Hardness of Poplar Lumber. Drying Technology, 31: 1107–1113, 2013

Cown, D.J., & McConchie, D.L. (1982) Rotation age and silvicultural effects on wood properties of four stands of Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 12, 71–85.

Emmerich, L. Bollmus, S. & Militz, H. (2019) Wood modification with DMDHEU (1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea) – State of the art, recent research activities and future perspectives, Wood Material Science & Engineering, 14:1, 3-18, DOI: 10.1080/17480272.2017.1417907

Esteves, B. Pereira, H. (2009) Wood modification by heat Treatment: A Review. BioResources 4(1), 370-404.

Esteves, B. Ribeiro, F. Cruz-Lopez, L. Ferreira, J. Domingos, I. (2017) Densification and Heat Treatment of Maritime Pine Wood. Wood Research 62 (3): 2017 373-388

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Gong, M. Lamason, C. Li, L (2010) Interactive effect of surface densification and post-heat-treatment on aspen wood. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 210, Issue 2, 19 January 2010, Pages 293-296.

Hunter, M. McIvor, I. (2008) Growing poplars for timber in Northland, New Zealand Tree Grower, May 2008.

Isebrands, J., Richardson, J. (Eds) (2014) Poplars and Willows: Trees for Society and the Environment. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

Jones, T. (2016) Tree diameter growth and wood properties of poplar clones in New Zealand. In Poplars and Other Fast-Growing Trees - Renewable Resources for Future Green Economies. Berlin, Germany: International Poplar Commission (IPC).

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McIvor, Ian (2011) Poplars for the Farm, No. 5. Plant and Food Research

Militz, H. Schaffert, S. Peters, B. Fitzgerald, C. Termite resistance of DMDHEU-treated wood. Wood Sci Technol 45, 547–557 (2011).

Satchell, D. Moore, J. (2023) Sawn timber and structural products from ‘Kawa’ poplar (Populus deltoides Marshall x P. yunnanensis Dode) grown in Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science (2023) 53:1.

Sözbir, G. Ibrahim, B. Aysenur, K (2019) Influence of combined heat treatment and densification on mechanical properties of poplar wood. Maderas, Cienc. tecnol. vol.21 no.4 Concepción dic. 2019.

Rapp, A. Sailer, M. (2000) Heat treatment of wood in Germany - state of the art. Retrieved from

Wilkinson, A. G. (2000) Introduced forest trees in New Zealand: Recognition, role, and seed source - The poplars, Populus spp. FRI Bulletin No. 124, Part 17. Rotorua: NZ Forest Research Institute.

Williams, D. Simpson, I. Bier, H. (1986) Properties of New Zealand grown poplar, FRI Bulletin No. 112. Rotorua: NZ Forest Research Institute.

Disclaimer: The opinions and information provided in this report have been provided in good faith and on the basis that every endeavour has been made to be accurate and not misleading and to exercise reasonable care, skill and judgement in providing such opinions and information. The Author and NZFFA will not be responsible if information is inaccurate or not up to date, nor will we be responsible if you use or rely on the information in any way.


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