Official website of the New Zealand Farm Forestry Association

Case Study: Wensleydale Station stand records 1996

In 1996 the oldest plantation trees, planted in 1976, were 20 years old, and the first, 1986, agroforestry plantings were ten... a good time to undertake an audit of the seven stands planted between 1976 and 1992. These records are based on a combination of Wensleydale Station records and quality-control records from establishment and tending operations completed by Malcolm Galloway. Some additional plots were established in blocks that had had no recent silvicultural treatment.
It is important to keep accurate stand management records, not only because they provide a valuable source of information to guide future planting and management decisions but also because when selling, they give both the owner and the buyer confidence in what is being purchased.
Road Paddock 1976
Bush Reserve 1983
Horse Paddock trial 1985
Horse Paddock trial 1986
Road Paddock 1987
No 14 Paddock (Bottom) 1988
Paddock No 1 & No 2 1992

Road Paddock Planted: 1976

Area planted: 4 hectares.
This block was planted under Forest Encouragement Grant Scheme, grant number 2/7521.

Species and seed source: Pinus radiata, open grown seedlings, sourced from Puha Nursery, seed ex Spencer Bush.

Establishment
Stocked at 1660 stems per hectare [2 x 3 m]
Planted using T cut method
Release sprayed after planting. (Probably a Simazine/Atrazine type mix.)
As the ECG subsidy applied, all work would have been inspected and certified by NZFS extension officer.

Tending history

  • April 1981 pruned 750 to 2 m. Thinned to waste to 750 sph. DOS estimate 14 cm.
  • October 1982 pruned 360 stems per hectare to 4.2. DOS estimate 18 cm
  • July 1983 pruned 250 stems per hectare to 6 m. Thinned to final stocking. DOS estimate16 cm
  • August 1985 a few trees at gate to Main Road pruned to 8 m.

Status as at April 1997
Based on two 600m² plots established at random:
Stocking
291 sph
DBH
50.9cm
Tree height
30.5m
Prune height
6m

Foliar testing
Field sample collected 28 April 1997
Element
Percent
Species average
Nitrogen
1.05
1.75 -- 1.96
Phosphorous
0.14
0.13 -- 0.18
Sulphur
0.13

Magnesium
0.21
0.064 -- 0.15
Calcium
0.54
1.18 -- 1.28
Sodium
0.10

Potassium
0.54
0.71 -- 1.29

Element
PPM
Zinc
22
Copper
3
Iron
97
Boron
18
(top)

Bush reserve

Planted: 1983

Area planted: 3.3 hectares
Pinus radiata/Acacia melanoxylon interplant along bush margin on back boundary of property. The original aim was to grow a crop of Acacia melanoxylon, using P. radiata as the nurse crop. The radiata very quickly became too dominant and suppressed the Acacia, and, coupled with the generally poor form shown by the Acacia, a change in aim saw the radiata pruned as the dominant crop with Acacia hopefully providing a second, subdominant crop.

Species and seed source

  • Species one: Pinus radiata, open grown seedlings, source Puha Nursery
  • Species two: Acacia melanoxylon, seedlings, source G Hair, Open grown, carrot roots, nil fibres.

Establishment

Pinus radiata planted as nurse crop. Two rows, 2.5 m apart, trees 1.8 m along row.
Acacia melanoxylon planted in the third row, 2 m apart in row.

Stocking: P Radiata 1480 sph, A melanoxylon 660 sph
Radiata released with Velpar (L), Acacia released with Prefix granules. Acacia blanked at year one, 100 trees replaced.

Tending
  • August 1987 form pruned Acacia. Best over 2 m tall
  • March 1989 Acacia form and growth rate very poor. Decided not to clear radiata out at age 5-6 as had been the plan, but to maintain some radiata as dominant crop, and to persevere with Acacia as sub dominant species.
  • April 1989 best 100 stems per ha radiata pruned to 4.5 m. Radiata thinned to 100 sph plus residual acacia. DOS estimated 22.0 centimetres.
  • March 1991 radiata pruned to 6.5 m. 100 sph treated. DOS estimate is 30 cm
  • June 1993: form pruned acacia
  • March 1995: radiata pruned to 10.1 m, DOS 33.5 cm
Final plotting was carried out in conjunction with the prune operation in March 1995:
Stocking:
100 sph P.radiata

50-100 sph Acacia
DBH
59.3 cm
Tree height
18.4 m
Prune height
10.1 m
(top)

Horse Paddock Trial #1

Planted: 1985

Area planted: 1.5 ha
Planted as a trial of agroforestry spacing and genetics. Trial initiated through local farmer members of the NZFFA and the NZ Forest Service extension officer (one of five then in the district).

Species and seed source
P. Radiata GF 19 seedling, Puha Nursery
P. Radiata GF19 seedling, FRI, 268 Selection

Establishment
Groups of three seedlings planted at 2 m centres with 1m between trees in each group. 300 sph.
Multi (H) planting cut used, with cultivation.
Velpar liquid used as release agent – 16 ml per tree of 10% mix solution.

Tending history
  • March 1987 Some topple causing stem malformation (sweep) to excessive levels. Corrected where possible with form pruning and stem cut-back to first whorl. Sail area reduced to minimise susceptibility to damage.
  • May 1988 Further form pruning of large branching, ramicorms and double leaders. Wind continuing to trouble main leaders and causing stem malformation. Thinned obvious culls.
  • April 1989 Selected best 100 sph as final crop. Pruned to 3 m. Some further form pruning in crown. DOS estimated at 15-18 cm.
  • August 1990 Pruned final crop selection to 4.5 m. DOS estimated at 18-20 cm. Thinned to final stocking (100 sph).
  • June 1991 Stragglers pruned to 4.5 m.
  • May 1992 Pruned to 6.5 m. DOS estimated at 18-20 cm.
  • February 1997 Pruned as high as possible on trees with branch size and DOS to make it worthwhile. Some taken up to 11.5 m. DOS measured 27.8 cm.
Status as at April 1997:
Stocking
115 sph
DBH
38.2 cm
Tree height
19.8 m
Prune height
7.6 m
(top)

Horse Paddock Trial #2

Planted: 1986

Area planted: 4.5ha
Planted as an agroforestry trial of three different seed types and/or sources.

Species and seed source:
Species
Type
Source
GF rating
Comment
Pinus radiata
Cutting
Kaingaroa
22
700 control pollinated Top 25 selection 268
Pinus radiata
Seedling
Kaingaroa
19
500 open pollinated Top 16 selection 268
Pinus radiata
Seedling
Puha
16
1200 seed orchard stock

Establishment
1    Groups of three cuttings planted 1 m apart, each group at 10 m centres. 300 sph.
2    Groups of three seedlings planted 1 m apart, each group at 10 m centres. 300 sph.
3a    Groups of three seedlings planted 1 m apart, each group at 10 m centres. 300 sph.
3b    Seedlings planted 4 m between rows by 4 m between trees, 625 sph.
All spots sprayed with either Paraquat/Simazine mix or Velpar (L).
All trees planted using multi (H) cut and cultivation.

Tending history
  • Pre February 1988 Some main leader form pruning. Removing and shortening branches to lighten sail area.
  • May 1988 Continue form prune, maintaining main leader. Cut back (to first branch whorl) wind thrown trees.
  • June 1989 Continue form prune, clearwood prune height rising to 0.5 -- 1 m. Thin one tree per group -- down to 200 sph.
  • July 1990 Continue form prune, prune height up to 1.5 -- 2 m. DOS estimated in 12 -- 14 cm range.
  • June 1991 Continue clearwood prune with continued form pruning of crown. Prune height 3 m. DOS estimates in 14 -- 16 cm range. Thinned to final stocking.
  • May 1992 Clearwood prune to 10 cm (over stubs) gauge. Prune height 3.5 -- 4.5 m.
  • June 1993 Pruned to 10 cm gauge. Prune height 6.2 m.
  • March 1995 Pruned to 8.2 m average (7.5 -- 9.5 m range).
DOS measured at 21.5cm average.
DOS height 6.2 m.
DBH measured at 24.9 cm average.
Tree height 14.1 m.
  • April 1997 Pruned to 9.5 m average (part block)
DOS measured at 26.2 cm
DBH measured at 28.6 cm
Prune height 8.7 m (part block)
DBH 33.4 cm
Tree height 19 m
Stocking 145 sph

Foliar testing
Field sample collected 28 April 1997:
Element
Percent
Species average
Nitrogen
1.26
1.75 -- 1.96
Phosphorous
0.16
0.13 -- 0.18
Sulphur
0.12

Magnesium
0.17
0.064 -- 0.15
Calcium
0.55
1.18 -- 1.28
Sodium
0.03

Potassium
0.93
0.71 -- 1.29

Element
PPM
Manganese
199
Zinc
30
Copper
3
Iron
50
Boron
20
(top)

Road Paddock

Planted 1987

Area planted 5 ha
Further agroforestry plantings, best genetic stock available.

Species and seed source:
Species
Type
Source
GF rating
Comment
Pinus radiata
Cutting
Owhata
22
From four-year-old trees. Large stock
Pinus radiata
Cutting
Puha
22
Root trainers. Small and frail

Establishment
Greater confidence in stock and survival was reflected in reduced planting stocking to groups of two trees planted 1.5 m apart at 10 m centres.
Trees planted using multi (H) cut and cultivation.
All spots pre-sprayed with Velpar (L).

Tending history
  • June 1998 Some minor wind damagae. Form pruned, reduced sail area.
  • June 1990 Pruned to 1.4 m, further form prune and crown reduction
  • July 1991 Prune to 2.5m.
  • May 1992 Prune to 3.5?4.5m (pruning gauge 10cm over stubs).
  • January 1994 Pruned to 5 m (pruning gauge 10cm over stubs).
  • February 1996 Pruned to 6.5 m.
  • May 1996 Pruned to 8.5 m (100 trees only).
  • April 1997 Pruned to 8.5-9 m.
Status as at April 1997:
Stocking
100 sph
DBH
28.8 cm
Tree height
15.6 m
Pruned height
9.1 m

Foliar testing
Field sample taken 28 April 1997:
Element
Percent
Species average
Nitrogen
1.30
1.75 -- 1.96
Phosphorous
0.14
0.13 -- 0.18
Sulphur
0.12

Magnesium
0.16
0.064 -- 0.15
Calcium
0.51
1.18 -- 1.28
Sodium
0.04

Potassium
0.96
0.71 -- 1.29

Element
PPM
Manganese
295
Zinc
31
Copper
3
Iron
62
Boron
19
(top)

No 14 Paddock (Bottom)

Planted 1989

Area planted 4 ha (Map 3)
Planted as a trial of cuttings from four top-of-the-range GF25 P. radiata clones ex FRI and GF23 cuttings ex Puha.

Species and seed source
Species
Type
Source
GF rating
Comment
Pinus radiata
Seedling
FRI
25
Clones 109, 333, 405, 494
Pinus radiata
Cutting
Puha
23
O.G. Big healthy plants

Establishment
Prespray with Velpar (L) most of block.
Groups of two planted 2 m apart at 8 m centres, 8 m between rows. Total stocking approximately 400 stems per hectare.
Multi (H) cut with cultivation planting method used.

Tending history
  • February 1992 Minor wind throw damage. Trees cut back to bottom branch. Form pruned and sail area lightened.
  • May 1993 Pruned to 2.2 m and crown form pruned. DOS estimated 2.0 -- 14.0 cm.
  • January 1994 Pruned to 3.5 m. DOS estimated 16.0 -- 18.0 cm.
  • December 1994 Pruned to 4.5 m. Thinned obvious culls. DOS estimated 18.0 -- 20.0 cm
  • January 1996 Pruned to 6.5 m. Thinned to final stocking. DOS 21.5 cm
(top)

Paddock No 1 & No 2

Planted: 1992

Area planted: 2 ha

Species and seed source
Species
Type
Source
GF rating
Comment
Pinus radiata
Cuttings
Puha
25
Small and topped, hardy

Establishment
Single cuttings planted eight 4 m by 4 m, are 625 sph.
Trees topped in nursery, very woody and hardy.
Multi (H) cut with cultivation planting method used.
Trees post-plant release with Gardoprim

Tending
  • June 1995 Minor wind throw corrected (100 trees back to bottom branch).
  • May 1996 Pruned to 2.5 m. DOS estimated 12.0 – 14.0 cm
  • February 1998 Pruned to 4.2 m. DOS measured 18.1 cm

Status
Two plots were established in February 1998
Stocking
442 sph
DBH
16.45 cm
DOS
18.13 cm
Tree height
7.4 m
Pruned height
4.2 m
(top)
(top)

Farm Forestry - Headlines